Key Contacts

contact details for our global offices
USA: +1 650 252 0002
UK: +44 203 670 2007

Recent News

Recent Tweets

NDB as the winner of Orano Call has started a collaboration with the world's largest nuclear power and renewable en…

NDB Fabrication

NDB > NDB Fabrication

Device Fabrication Techniques

Carbon-14 Battery Nanotechnology Building NDB Atom By Atom

The main body of the Nano Diamond Battery uses processes called Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Sputtering to make.



CVD is a process developed back in the 1950s where a layer of material is ‘grown’ onto a pre-existing surface, atomic layer by layer.

The most recent technique of this type involves the use of plasma where plasma passes over a substrate. In the case of a carbon-14 diamond, a carbon-14 plasma passes over normal diamonds to grow a carbon-14 diamonds crystal layer on top.


The plasma used for the production of NDB consists of two types of gas. One is the source gas that contains the carbon that grows the diamond. The other is the etch gas that removes the unwanted material on the surface. Using these gases, you can grow a very clean and pure diamond. For the production of NDB, the source gas is methane. Etch gas is hydrogen.


CVD saw heavy development in recent years due to its economic interest in the fabrication of silicon, the base material of computer chips.


CVD can Grow All Non-Metallic Components Of The NDB.


Sputtering, like CVD, is a plasma-based system. This system coats the surface of the substrate with conductive elements, like aluminum, titanium, and platinum.


During sputtering a metal target (aluminum, titanium, and platinum) will be exposed to Argon plasma. This plasma then gives the metal particles energy for it to become free.


This metal particles then coat the surface of the substrate. Most importantly this technique will form a robust TiC bond between the diamond and the titanium contact. The sputtering process is as desribed below.

The surface of the substrate where the methane (carbon source gas) travels to the surface and adds the carbon atom to the pre-existing diamond film resulting in an atomic layer by layer growth.

If the carbon attaches itself in the wrong type of bond (\textrm{sp} ^{2} bond, aka graphitic bond) the hydrogen plasma will then incinerate the incorrect bond allowing the correct type of bond (\textrm{sp} ^{3}, aka diamond bond) to form. Boron that has been infused into the diamond layer will enhance the electric conductivity of the diamond layer.

Carbon-14 Fabrication


The performance of NDB depends on the amount of energetic electron decay. This decay then creates a shower of electric charges that is electricity.


What this means is that the higher the concentration of carbon-14. The higher the number of energetic electron decay. Therefore the device will have more electricity output.


NDB uses highly purified, high concentration carbon-14 to maximize electrical output. Namely, NDB uses two types of purification process, graphite sectioning, and NDB’s own CDPME1 process.

CDPME1 Process


CDPME1 is a multi-stage chemical process that converts the carbon-14 graphite into a form that is convenient for fabricating the Nano Diamond Battery.


What’s more critical is purity. Being a nuclear waste battery, NDB’s raw materials aren’t initially pure. After converting it, it has to be purified.


CDMPE1 is NDB’s own process that uses processes that are used in the International Space Station among others to increase carbon-14 purity to near 100%. The diagram represents one of the multi-stage processes.