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NDB Fabrication

NDB > NDB Fabrication

Device Fabrication Techniques

Carbon-14 Battery Nanotechnology Building NDB Atom By Atom

The main body of the Nuclear Diamond Battery uses processes called Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Sputtering to make.



CVD is a process developed back in the 1950s where a layer of material is ‘grown’ onto a pre-existing surface, atomic layer by layer.

The most recent technique of this type involves the use of plasma where plasma passes over a substrate. In the case of a nuclear diamond, a carbon-14 plasma passes over normal diamonds to grow a nuclear diamonds crystal layer on top.


The plasma used for the production of NDB consists of two types of gas. One is the source gas that contains the carbon that grows the diamond. The other is the etch gas that removes the unwanted material on the surface. Using these gases, you can grow a very clean and pure diamond. For the production of NDB, the source gas is methane. Etch gas is hydrogen.


CVD saw heavy development in recent years due to its economic interest in the fabrication of silicon, the base material of computer chips.


CVD can Grow All Non-Metallic Components Of The NDB.


Sputtering, like CVD, is a plasma-based system. This system coats the surface of the substrate with conductive elements, like aluminum, titanium, and platinum.


During sputtering a metal target (aluminum, titanium, and platinum) will be exposed to Argon plasma. This plasma then gives the metal particles energy for it to become free.


This metal particles then coat the surface of the substrate. Most importantly this technique will form a robust TiC bond between the diamond and the titanium contact. The sputtering process is as desribed below.

The surface of the substrate where the methane (carbon source gas) travels to the surface and adds the carbon atom to the pre-existing diamond film resulting in an atomic layer by layer growth.

If the carbon attaches itself in the wrong type of bond (\textrm{sp} ^{2} bond, aka graphitic bond) the hydrogen plasma will then incinerate the incorrect bond allowing the correct type of bond (\textrm{sp} ^{3}, aka diamond bond) to form. Boron that has been infused into the diamond layer will enhance the electric conductivity of the diamond layer.

Carbon-14 Fabrication


The performance of NDB depends on the amount of radioactive decay. This decay then creates a shower of electric charges that is electricity.


What this means is that the higher the concentration of carbon-14. The higher the number of radioactive decay. Therefore the device will have more electricity output.


NDB uses highly purified, high concentration carbon-14 to maximize electrical output. Namely, NDB uses two types of purification process, graphite sectioning, and NDB’s own CDPME1 process.

Graphite Sectioning


Graphite from the nuclear reactor (moderator, reflector, etc.) contains both carbon-12 and carbon-14.


The reason why nuclear graphite contains carbon-14 is that over the years of being exposed to radiation. The nuclear graphite itself has become radioactive, and that radioactive isotope is carbon-14.


Naturally, the more exposed sections to radiation will contain a higher concentration of carbon-14 as seen from the study on the Oldbury Magnox Reactor graphite.

Another example of this is the RBMK (Russia) graphite. The central section of the nuclear graphite close to the radiation source had a higher concentration of carbon-14. Specifically, the concentration of carbon-14 was one order of magnitude greater for its central section than the reflectors. Which agrees with the amount of radiation since neutron flux was also found to be one order of magnitude greater.


Therefore, by selectively removing sections of graphite that were close to the reactor. You can remove the bulk of carbon-14 for further purification. An important factor here is the radiation count from the non-removed graphite.


The removal of the section should be such that the bulk radiation count does not exceed the IAEA guideline levels which in the case of bulk carbon-14 is 1 Bq/g. The removed waste is then further processed until it is deemed safe to the public.

CDPME1 Process


CDPME1 is a multi-stage chemical process that converts the nuclear graphite into a form that is convenient for fabricating the Nuclear Diamond Battery.


What’s more critical is purity. Being a nuclear waste battery, NDB’s raw materials aren’t initially pure. After converting it, it has to be purified.


CDMPE1 is NDB’s own process that uses processes that are used in the International Space Station among others to increase carbon-14 purity to near 100%. The diagram represents one of the multi-stage processes.